Houston Baptist University Catalog

Psychology (PSYC) Course Descriptions


PSYC 1313 General Psychology
An introductory course dealing with the major content areas in psychology. Topics may include heredity and environment, emotions and motivation, perception, learning, personality, and intelligence. This course may be taken to meet Smith College requirements and as an elective by non-psychology majors. It is required for psychology majors.

PSYC 2181 SPECIAL TOPICS
For course description and prerequisite(s) for this course, please contact the Dean of the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences.

PSYC 2301 Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
Prerequisite: MATH 1305, 1313 or equivalent
The course provides an introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics, correlation, probability, and regression-with applications in behavioral sciences. (Offered also as SOCI 2301.)

PSYC 2311 Schools and Learning
A study of philosophical, cultural, and psychological constructs as well as ethical principles which influence education, schooling, and learning. Observation and experience in schools is combined with intensive analyses and applications of principles from philosophy, sociology, psychology, and ethics (as they apply to education and schooling). This course does not count toward a psychology major. (Offered also as EDUC 2311 and SOCI 2311.)

PSYC 2325 Dating and Intimate Relationships
This is an introductory course understanding close relationships. It will cover the research on relationships from dating through family formation. This course will survey the scientific research about how people are attracted to each other and the processes of establishing and maintaining a dating relationship. The effects of cohabiting will be examined and its relationship on children. How this intimacy develops into a health marital relationship and how the stresses of marriage can threaten this intimacy is covered. The causes of divorce and the special challenges of single-parenting and intimacy are addressed.

PSYC 2330 Human Sexuality
Prerequisite: None
This is an introductory course about human sexuality. It will survey a variety of topics from biological to psychological to social aspects of human sexuality. This course will provide a scientific understanding of the historical, biological, psychological and social/cultural influences on human sexuality and its expression. Information about human sexuality across the lifespan will be included. This course provides information about sexual identity, orientation, and how changing sexual attitudes are influencing the culture. This course also provides information about the prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted infections. Information about the biological and psychological causes of sexual dysfunction and their treatments will also be covered.

PSYC 2340 Health Psychology
Prerequisite: None
Health Psychology is an introductory course dealing with the major content areas of health psychology. Topics include: an overview of the field of health psychology, major body systems, important theoretical models for explaining, promoting, and changing health behaviors, and moderators for stress and coping. The psychosocial aspects of pain, coronary heart disease, hypertension, stroke, diabetes, and other chronic health conditions will also be introduced. (Offered also as KINE 2340)

PSYC 2364 Abnormal Psychology
Prerequisite: PSYC 1313
A study of normal and abnormal psychological functioning, psychological disorders, behavioral disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, and substance abuses. May be taken by non-psychology majors as an elective. Recommended for majors in nursing, education, and areas which deal with problems of persons.

PSYC 2381 SPECIAL TOPICS
For course description and prerequisite(s) for this course, please contact the Dean of the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences.

PSYC 3303 Research Methods
Prerequisites: PSYC 2301 and WRIT 2306 or 3304 or permission of instructor
This is an applied research course for psychology majors. Students are instroduced to research design and methods for behavioral sciences to include experiments and correlational studies. Applied projects include using library databases, reading and critically reviewing current empirical literature, proposing original research, writing hypotheses, and discerning appropriate data analyses and statistics. (Offered also as SOCI 3303.)

PSYC 3305 Psychology of Personality
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313
This course reviews the major theories of personality as they relate to explanations of human behavior, mental processes, and development. Issues of formal theory development and evaluation of formal theories are addressed. May be used as an advanced elective by psychology majors.

PSYC 3313 Human Growth and Development
Prerequisite: PSYC 1313
An upper level psychology elective, this course is designed to emphasize the continuity of human development throughout the life span. The interrelationships among physical, cognitive and psychosocial development will be emphasized.

PSYC 3343 Experimental Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313, 2301, and WRIT 2306 or 3304
This is an applied research course for psychology majors. Research design for experiments, co-relational studies and more complex research projects are studied. Actual projects are performed with formal project and laboratory reports filed for each such completed study. Quantitative methods and their applications are emphasized, including the use of descriptive, inferential and multivariate statistics.

PSYC 3410 Experimental Psychology
Prerequisite: PSYC 1313, PSYC 2301 or SOCI 2301
Experimental psychology is an applied research course for psychology majors. Basic research methods and terminology will be presented and practiced in the classroom and these principles then applied in a computer lab. Research design for experiments, correlational studies, and more complex research projects will be critically reviewed. Students will be expected to participate in the early stages of designing a quantitative research study to include a critical review of the literature, formulating testable hypotheses, choosing an appropriate research design and outlining the methods and analyses. Applied statistical analyses will be reviewed and then practiced with SPSS software in the lab.

PSYC 4181 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of 30 clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Departmental approval required.

PSYC 4281 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of 30 clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Departmental approval required.

PSYC 4292 Senior Seminar in Experimental Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 2301, 3343, WRIT 2306 or 3304, and 15 hours in psychology
In this course the student designs an original research project, preparing a proposal which describes the problem, the hypotheses, the review of literature, techniques to be used, and other components normally found in research proposals. See Note 9 under Undergraduate Degree Requirements.

PSYC 4295 Senior Seminar in Experimental Psychology
Prerequisite: PSYC 4292
The student conducts an approved research project and prepares a report which includes findings and conclusions. See Note 9 under Undergraduate Degree Requirements.

PSYC 4310 History and Theoretical Systems in Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313 and at least 64 credit hrs
This course surveys current systems of thought in psychology and reviews the major philosophical and historical underpinnings of the discipline. Relevant material from scientific research, including the biological and physical sciences, will be included.

PSYC 4316 Child Psychopathology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313, WRIT 2306 or 3304 or permission of instructor
This course will focus on major forms of atypical development in childhood and adolescence. Course material will include disorders of behavior, disorders of emotion, developmental and learning problems, and problems related to mental health. Child and adolescent disorders will be discussed in terms of defining characteristics, associated features, possible causes, theoretical formulations, research evidence, and current approaches to intervention and prevention. The possible developmental course of each disorder will be presented to show how biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors interact with the child¿s environment to determine the expression of atypical development. (Offered also as PSYC 5316.)

PSYC 4322, Cognitive Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313; at least 64 credit hours, and any BIOL course
Cognitive psychology is the study of the mind, how we perceive the world, remember, reason, think, and learn. This course will present an overview of cognitive psychology, its findings, theories, and approach. Topics covered will include pattern recognition, attention, memory, imagery, concepts and categorization, and problem solving.

PSYC 4323 Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313, WRIT 2306 or 3304, or permission of the instructor
Comprehensive and intensive study of major theoretical orientations in counseling and psychotherapy, stressing implications for research and practice. Includes experiences in micro-counseling and other simulations to develop counseling skills. (Offered also as EPSY 5323 and PSYC 5323.)

PSYC 4326 Psychology of Dying, Bereavement, and Counseling
Prerequisite: WRIT 2306 or 3304 or permission of instructor
A course dealing with the process of dying and grief of the survivors. The psychological adjustments of the individual, family, and professional are examined. How to facilitate grief as well as therapeutic issues are discussed. (Offered also as PSYC 5326 and EPSY 5326.)

PSYC 4330 Psychology of Learning
Prerequisites: None
A course stressing the contributions of major learning theories to understanding behavior. Particular attention is paid to human learning and the applicability of learning theory to the educational process as well as to goal attainments. (Offered also as EDUC 4330, PSYC 5330, and EPSY 5330.)

PSYC 4332 Social Psychology
Prerequisites: At least 64 credit hrs
Contemporary approaches to social behavior are considered. Cultural influences, prejudice, persuasion, conformity, attribution theories, and social cognitions are some of the topics addressed. (Offered also as PSYC 5332 and SOCI 4332.)

PSYC 4333 MEASUREMENT AND EVALUATION
For course description and prerequisite(s) for this course, please contact the Dean of the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences.

PSYC 4334 Psychology of Religion
Prerequisite: CHRI 1313, 1323 and at least 64 credit hrs
The insights of psychology as a science are used to inspect and evaluate the religious dimensions of life. How religion effects religious development, health, experience, and relationships in the church, family, and marriage will be covered. (Offered also as CHRI 4334 and PSYC 5334.)

PSYC 4353 Physiological Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313; BIOL 1404 or 2404 or 2475 or 2414; and WRIT 2306 or 3304
A study of the physiological bases of behavior, with emphasis on learning the relationships between the functioning of the brain and nervous system with observable behavior. Neurodevelopment, the effects of drugs, and the biological basis of psychopathology will be some of the topics covered.

PSYC 4360, Cultural Psychology
Prerequisites: PSYC 1313 and at least 64 credit hours
The course will introduce counseling relationships and processes. Included in the study are theories of multicultural counseling, dimensions of worldviews, racial/cultural identiy development, counseling ethnic minorities, bicultural/biracial minorities, women, and sexual minorities. The main focus of the course will be gaining practical knowledge and skills necessary to work effectively with ethnically and culturally diverse clients in North America.

PSYC 4381 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of 30 clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Departmental approval required.

PSYC 4390 Psychology Capstone Course
Prerequisite: PSYC 3410, Senior standing
This course is the culminating experience for the psychology major. Students will incorporate the essential core concepts of psychology into one of two domains. Domain I will focus on an in-depth original research project written according to American Psychological Association guidelines. Domain II will focus on an internship at an approved site.

PSYC 5181 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.

PSYC 5281 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.

PSYC 5300 General Psychology
An introductory course dealing with the major content areas in psychology. Topics may include heredity and environment, emotions and motivation, perception, learning, personaity, and intelligence. An examination of how introductory principles are applied in licensure programs is addressed. This course is taken by students fulfilling the leveling requirement for a master's degree in psychology or counseling.

PSYC 5301 Introductory Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences
This provides an intermediate level introduction to descriptive and inferential statistics, correlation, probability, and regression with applications in behavioral sciences. This course is taken by students fulfilling the leveling requirement for a Master's degree in psychology or counseling.

PSYC 5302 Abnormal Psychology
A study of normal and abnormal psychological functioning, psychological disorders, psychosomatic illnesses, and substance abuses. May be taken by non-psychology majors as an elective. This course is taken by students fulfilling the leveling requirement for a Master's degree in psychology or counseling.

PSYC 5310 Ethical and Professional Issues in Psychology and Counseling
A seminar format will provide the student with opportunities to study ethical standards and applications in psychology.

PSYC 5312 Marriage, Couple, and Family Counseling Theories
This course is an introduction to the field of couples and family therapy. It will feature theory and practice in the treatment of dyadic relationships, marriages, and families (including families with children). Students will develop an understanding of the prominent theories, including emphasis on systems theories that form the basis of relevant therapy approaches, and will develop basic skills in utilizing therapeutic interventions with couples and families.

PSYC 5313 Methods and Techniques in Counseling
This course will introduce the student to those active listening skills which communicate the qualities of empathy, genuineness and unconditional positive regard. The course will include role-playing and videotaped exercises. Other selected interventions will be included.

PSYC 5314 Methods and Techniques in Christian Counseling
This course is designed to introduce graduate students to basic techniques, methods, and theories behind the practice of Christian counseling and to integrate established psychotherapeutic techniques into the practice Christian counseling.

PSYC 5315 Christian Integration Seminar I
The purpose of this course is to help the student begin a path to effectively integrate their Christian faith with psychology and counseling. Theological backgrounds of counseling, major theories of Christian integration with counseling and the role of the Christian counselor in society will be examined. The student will formulate their own Christian integration perspective based on activities and readings in the course. This course is to be taken in the student¿s first year in the MACC program.

PSYC 5316 Child Psychopathology
This course will focus on major forms of atypical development in childhood and adolescence. Course material will include disorders of behavior, disorders of emotion, developmental and learning problems, and problems related to mental health. Child and adolescent disorders will be discussed in terms of defining characteristics, associated features, possible causes, theoretical formulations, research evidence, and current approaches to intervention and prevention. The possible developmental course of each disorder will be presented to show how biological, psychological and socio-cultural factors interact with the child¿s environment to determine the expression of atypical development. (Offered also as PSYC 4316.)

PSYC 5323 Theories of Counseling and Psychotherapy
Comprehensive and intensive study of major theoretical orientations in counseling and psychotherapy, stressing implications for research and practice. Includes experiences in micro-counseling and other simulations to develop counseling skills.(Offered also as PSYC 4323 and EPSY 5323.)

PSYC 5326 Psychology of Dying, Bereavement, and Counseling
A course dealing with the process of dying and grief of the survivors. The psychological adjustments of the individual, family, and professional are examined. How to facilitate grief as well as therapeutic issues are discussed. (Offered also as PSYC 4326, EPSY 5326.)

PSYC 5330 Psychology of Learning
A course stressing the contributions of major learning theories to understanding behavior. Particular attention is paid to human learning and the applicability of learning theory to the educational process as well as to goal attainments. (Offered also as EDUC 4330, PSYC 4330, and EPSY 4330.)

PSYC 5332 Social Psychology
Contemporary approaches to social behavior are considered. Cultural influences, prejudice, persuasion, conformity, attribution theories, and social cognitions are some of the topics addressed. (Offered also as PSYC 4332 and SOCI 4332.)

PSYC 5334 Psychology of Religion
The insights of psychology as a science are used to inspect and evaluate the religious dimensions of life. How religion effects religious development, health, experience, and relationships in the church, family, and marriage will be covered. (Offered also as CHRI 4334 and PSYC 4334.)

PSYC 5353 Physiological Psychology
A study of physiological bases of behavior with an emphasis on mental disorders, behaviors, and emotions.

PSYC 5360, Cultural Psychology
This course is designed to strengthen diversity and multicultural awareness among counselors, and other mental health providers. The course will strengthen counseling relationships and proesses. Included in the study are theories of multicultural counseling, dimensions of worldviews, racial/cultural identity development, counseling ethnic minorities, bicultural/biracial minorities, women, and sexual minorities. The main focus of the course will be on gaining practical knowledge and skills necessary to work effectively with ethnically and culturally diverse clients in North America.

PSYC 5363 PRINCIPLES OF GUIDANCE
For course description and prerequisite(s) for this course, please contact the Dean of the College of Education and Behavioral Sciences.

PSYC 5381 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.

PSYC 6101 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6102 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6103 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6104 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6105 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6106 Licensed Specialist in School Psychology Internship
This course is designed for students who have completed the Masters of Arts in Psychology degree and the additional hours required for the LSSP. The internship experience is a minimum of 1200 contact hours, of which 600 must be in a public school supervised by an individual qualified in accordance with state requirements. A licensed psychologist must supervise the non-school experience. The student must complete the internship in less than two years and in no more than two sites. The student must have direct, systematic supervision with experiences that include assessment, intervention, behavior management, and consultation for children representing a range of ages, populations, and needs. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus internship assignment.

PSYC 6181 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.

PSYC 6191 Counseling Practicum
Supervised laboratory experiences in individual and group counseling with emphasis upon methods and techniques. Competence in counseling with varied types of human concerns is developed. All practicum students must be involved in counseling activities and must exhibit skills in evaluation as well. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus practicum assignment.

PSYC 6192 Counseling Practicum
Supervised laboratory experiences in individual and group counseling with emphasis upon methods and techniques. Competence in counseling with varied types of human concerns is developed. All practicum students must be involved in counseling activities and must exhibit skills in evaluation as well. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus practicum assignment.

PSYC 6193 Counseling Practicum
Supervised laboratory experiences in individual and group counseling with emphasis upon methods and techniques. Competence in counseling with varied types of human concerns is developed. All practicum students must be involved in counseling activities and must exhibit skills in evaluation as well. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus practicum assignment.

PSYC 6194 Counseling Practicum
Supervised laboratory experiences in individual and group counseling with emphasis upon methods and techniques. Competence in counseling with varied types of human concerns is developed. All practicum students must be involved in counseling activities and must exhibit skills in evaluation as well. This course meets on campus when the student is involved in an off-campus practicum assignment.

PSYC 6199 Thesis Defense
PREREQ: PSYC 6324 and the successful completion of 30 hrs of course work in the MPA-General Program
This course if for students in the MAP-General program who have successfully completed the research project requirement for PSYC 6324. Students will select an advisory committee to prepare for formal manuscript preparation and the oral defense of the thesis.

PSYC 6281 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.

PSYC 6301 Principles of Human Development
Intensive study and examination of literature and theory in developmental psychology as it relates to persons through the lifespan from infancy through adulthood. Social and personality development, intellectual development, language acquisition, and developmental expectations are emphasized. The unique concerns of the exceptional child are studied as well as in-depth, case-study skill development. (Offered also as EPSY 6301.)

PSYC 6302 Measurement and Appraisal
Principles and techniques of psychological measurement are emphasized. Major instruments are surveyed, exclusive of projective measures and individual intellectual measures. The knowledge and skills covered can apply in a variety of settings; agencies, clinics, schools, and businesses. Uses and critical evaluation of achievement, aptitude, interest, and non-projective personality tests are included, as are experiences in administering and scoring of tests, and ethical standards for uses of tests. (Offered also as EPSY 6302.)

PSYC 6305 Individual Psychological Evaluation
Prerequisite: EPSY/PSYC 6302 or permission of instructor
Review of theory underlying individual ability tests; supervised practice in test administration, scoring, and interpretation. Skills in report preparation are addressed. The Wechsler scales are emphasized. (Offered also as EPSY 6305 and EDSP 6305.)

PSYC 6306 Career Information and Career Counseling
Prerequisite: EPSY 6302 OR PSYC 6302
Methods and processes of collecting, organizing, evaluating, and interpreting educational, occupational, and personal-social information. Theories of career development are included as well as the counselor¿s role in career education. Career interest inventories and other measures are reviewed with reference to their utility in career counseling.

PSYC 6308 Methods of Group Process
Prerequisite: PSYC 5323
This is a course in learning how to lead out-patient psychotherapy groups. Mock groups are conducted which allow students opportunities to practice group leadership. Feedback is provided by classmates and the professor.(Offered also as EPSY 6308.)

PSYC 6310 Clinical Psychopathology
Prerequisite: 24 graduate semester hours in psychology or permission of instructor
A course that examines the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, prognosis and therapeutic methods applicable to the major psychological disorders. Emphasis is placed on being able to differentiate one disorder from the other.

PSYC 6311 Addictions and Compulsive Disorders
This course examines a variety of models for the etiology and treatment of addictions with an emphasis on the biopsychological perspective. Students are encouraged to integrate empirically based intervention into Christian counseling settings.

PSYC 6315 Christian Integration Seminar II
Prerequisites: PSYC 5315 and at least 21 hours completed since taking PSYC 5315 or permission of the instructor
This course is an advanced survey course in the field of Christian Counseling. Students will learn how to apply the prominent theories that form the basis of Christian Counseling and develop a working knowledge of the special ethical and cultural considerations unique to the Christian counselor.

PSYC 6320 Research Techniques and Procedures
A study of a spectrum of research methods related to psychological and educational research. The course is designed to develop research knowledge and skills. Included are theory, techniques, designs, evaluation of research, and integration of findings into professional decision-making. (Offered also as EDUC 6320 and EDAD 6310.)

PSYC 6324 Research Seminar
Prerequisite: PSYC 6320
The student conducts an approved research project and prepares a report of findings of sufficient quality to be submitted for professional publication.

PSYC 6343 Personality Assessment
Prerequisites: PSYC/EPSY 6302, PSYC/EPSY 6305, and PSYC 6310 or permission of instructor
This course is an introduction to projective and objective psychological testing techniques used in the evaluation of people exhibiting mental, emotional, and/or behavioral disturbances. Report writing skills are addressed.

PSYC 6381 Special Topics
A service course designed to permit the offerings of topics of current interest. May also be used for individual study in which a minimum of thirty (30) clock hours of directed study is required for each semester hour of credit. Advanced reading, testing, and projects involving research are included. Permission of instructor required.